Sir Winston Churchill Biography

Sir Winston Churchill Biography

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Sir Winston Churchill


It may almost be said, 'Before Alamein we never had a victory. After Alamein we never had a defeat'.
ーSir Winston Churchl
The English statesman and author, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, who as Prime Minister (1940-45, 1951-55) led Britain during World War II and pursued a global war strategy in concert with president Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States. Winston Churchill is often described as the savior of the country.  However, Churchill is also to be remembered as one of the most famous personalities of the 20th century.

Sir Winston Churchill had an accurate place in 20th-century political history and will forever be the subject of debate and political writing. His record was for the most part before 1939 and after 1945. In the dark time, when England needed a prophet, a heroic visionary, a man who could dream of victory when all seemed lost was Winston Churchill. Their inspiring qualities forced their dynamic strength to the romantic world of the imaginary world in which they were in their true existence.

Winston Churchill was born on November 30, 1874, at Blenheim Palace, Oxford shire, and was the son of Lord Randolph Churchill, a descendent of the Duke of Marlborough. His mother, Jenny Jerome, was the beautiful and talented daughter of New York businessman Leonard Jerome. Winston idolized his mother, but his relations with his father, who died in 1895, were cold and distant. It is generally agreed that, as a child, Winston was deprived of openly expressed warmth and affection.

Churchill was neither happy nor successful at school. So he managed to make a career in the army. He very early exhibited the physical courage and love of adventure and action that he was to keep throughout his political career.His first role was that of a military journalist. Then he went to Cuba where he served as a subaltern (1895-98) and war correspondent and from there he moved to Africa during the Boer War (1899-1900) as a journalist for the Morning Post, and the most romantic of his escapades as a youth was his escape from a South-African prison during the conflict.

Churchill as a politician had lost more elections that any other political figure in the British history. He entered politics as a Conservative and represented the Oldham Constituency in the House of Commons. In 1906, he became a Vice Minister. Churchill's early years in politics were characterized by an interest in the radical reform of social problems. he was very active in the great reforming government of Lord Asquith between 1908 and 1912, and his work in palliating unemployment was also significant.

In 1912, Churchill became the first lord of the Admiralty--the range of offices which he held was as remarkable as the number of elections which he lost. He switched his enthusiasm away from butter towards guns and his goal was the preparation of Britain's fleet for impending war. He became committed to the view that the navy could best make an impact on the 1914-1918 war in Europe by way of swift strikes through the Dardanelles. This strategy proved unsuccessful and he resigned from the post of Admiralty. He was back in the army and served as an active military officer on the front lines in France.

Churchill soon re-entered political life. In 1916 he returned to parliament as a private member and then as a minister of Munitions. Churchill held the post of colonial secretary from 1921 to 1923. In 1924, Churchill severed his ties with liberalism and became chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanly Baldwin's Government. Although he held office under Baldwin, Churchill did not agree with the Conservative position either on defense or on imperialism. In 1931, he resigned from the Conservative 'Shadow Cabinet' as a protest against its Indian Policy. Churchill's interwar years were characterized by political isolation, and during this period he made many errors in judgements. Thus, he cannot be viewed simply as a popular leader who was kept waiting in the wings though no fault of his own.

The major period of Churchill's political career began when he became the Prime Minister and head of Ministry of Defense early in World War II. He assumed the Prime Ministership of Britain at a very critical point, when not only Britain but almost the whole Europe was threatened to be overtaken by the German Nazi hordes. Churchill declared that they would fight the enemy every where on land, in air and on water but they would not surrender. He rallied his people to resist despite the fall of France, and he led them fighting at the side of the United States and the Soviet Union. This installed much confidence in the troubled hearts of his countrymen and the people of the Allied countries. After six years of of fierce fighting, trials and hardships, Churchill led the Allied countries to ultimate victory.

But there were disputes over Churchill's policies. It has been argued that Churchill's over sensitivity to to the Mediterranean as a theatre of war led to mistakes in North Africa. The value of his resistance to the idea of a second front as the Germans advanced into Russia has also been questioned. And there has been considerable debate over the wisdom of the course he pursued at international conferenced which concluded agreements responsible in large part for the 'Cold War' of the 1950s and 1960s. But although criticisms may be made of Churchill's policies, his importance as a symbol of resistance and as an inspiration to victory cannot be challenged.

Churchill's fame not only rests on the heroic and successful leadership of the Allied countries during the Second World War but he is also known for his grand style and masterly command over English language. He was the author of some very popular and readable books such as World Crisis, Gathering Storm and Aftermath. Churchill also wrote his Memories of the Second World War (in 6 volumes) and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature (1953) by an Act of Congress. This great leader died on January 24, 1965, and was given a state funeral, the details of which had been largely dictated by himself before his death.